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桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:edaboard.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械手由(you)(you)主体、驱动(dong)系(xi)统(tong)和(he)控(kong)制(zhi)系(xi)统(tong)三个基(ji)本(ben)部分组成。按(an)机(ji)器(qi)人结构(gou)分类为(wei)直(zhi)角坐标(biao)(biao)型(xing),机(ji)械手沿二维(wei)直(zhi)角坐标(biao)(biao)系(xi)移动(dong)。主体部分通常采用龙门式结构(gou),由(you)(you)y向(xiang)横梁与导轨(gui)(gui)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕、十(shi)字滑(hua)座、立柱、过(guo)渡(du)连接板和(he)基(ji)座等部分组成,z向(xiang)的(de)(de)直(zhi)线运动(dong)皆为(wei)交流伺(si)服电动(dong)机(ji)通过(guo)蜗(wo)轮(lun)(lun)减(jian)速器(qi)驱动(dong)齿(chi)轮(lun)(lun)与y向(xiang)横梁、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕上固定(ding)的(de)(de)齿(chi)条作滚动(dong),驱动(dong)移动(dong)部件沿导轨(gui)(gui)快速运动(dong)。移动(dong)部件为(wei)质(zhi)量较轻的(de)(de)十(shi)字滑(hua)座和(he)z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕,滑(hua)枕采用由(you)(you)铝合(he)金拉制(zhi)的(de)(de)型(xing)材。横梁采用方钢型(xing)材,在横梁上安装有导轨(gui)(gui)和(he)齿(chi)条,通过(guo)滚轮(lun)(lun)与导轨(gui)(gui)接触(chu),整个机(ji)械手都悬挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于(yu)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)送(song)的速(su)(su)(su)度(du)快,加(jia)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)大(da),加(jia)减速(su)(su)(su)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)短(duan)(duan)。当输(shu)送(song)较(jiao)重的工(gong)件(jian)时(shi)(shi),惯(guan)量(liang)大(da),因此(ci),伺(si)(si)服驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)要(yao)(yao)有足够(gou)的驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)的能(neng)力,支撑元件(jian)也要(yao)(yao)有足够(gou)的刚度(du)及(ji)强度(du)。只(zhi)有这样,才能(neng)使(shi)伺(si)(si)服电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)满足桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)送(song)的高响应(ying)、高刚度(du)及(ji)高精度(du)要(yao)(yao)求。在(zai)选择(ze)合适(shi)伺(si)(si)服电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)的情(qing)况下,根(gen)据(ju)物料(liao)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)的距(ju)离和(he)(he)运(yun)行(xing)节拍(pai),计算(suan)出伺(si)(si)服系统的位移和(he)(he)轨迹(ji),对(dui)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)器(qi)PID参数(shu)进(jin)行(xing)动(dong)(dong)态(tai)调(diao)整(zheng)。桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)根(gen)据(ju)接(jie)收到(dao)的位移、速(su)(su)(su)度(du)指令,经变化、放大(da)并(bing)调(diao)整(zheng)处理后,传递(di)给运(yun)动(dong)(dong)单元,通过(guo)光纤(xian)传感器(qi)对(dui)运(yun)行(xing)状(zhuang)(zhuang)态(tai)进(jin)行(xing)实(shi)时(shi)(shi)检测,在(zai)高速(su)(su)(su)搬运(yun)过(guo)程中(zhong)(zhong),运(yun)动(dong)(dong)部件(jian)在(zai)极(ji)短(duan)(duan)的时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)内(nei)到(dao)达给定的速(su)(su)(su)度(du),并(bing)能(neng)在(zai)高速(su)(su)(su)行(xing)程中(zhong)(zhong)瞬(shun)间(jian)(jian)准(zhun)停(ting),通过(guo)高分辩率(lv)绝(jue)对(dui)式(shi)编码(ma)器(qi)的插补运(yun)算(suan),控制(zhi)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)误(wu)差(cha)和(he)(he)测量(liang)误(wu)差(cha)对(dui)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)精度(du)的影响。由于(yu)被输(shu)送(song)的工(gong)件(jian)不(bu)同,质(zhi)量(liang)也不(bu)同,因此(ci),桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)有多(duo)种规(gui)格和(he)(he)系列(lie)。在(zai)选择(ze)时(shi)(shi),根(gen)据(ju)被输(shu)送(song)工(gong)件(jian)的质(zhi)量(liang),加(jia)工(gong)的节拍(pai)来选取。但机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的手(shou)臂,夹(jia)持方(fang)式(shi),则根(gen)据(ju)被输(shu)送(song)工(gong)件(jian)的形状(zhuang)(zhuang)、结构及(ji)机(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)具定夹(jia)方(fang)式(shi)来设(she)计(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)能够借助可(ke)编程序来处理和(he)执(zhi)行(xing)任务(wu)。机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)主要由手(shou)图 1 臂、回(hui)转装(zhuang)置、运(yun)动部件(jian)(jian)(jian)及驱动部件(jian)(jian)(jian)组成。通过对(dui)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)外形(xing)或工件(jian)(jian)(jian)上定(ding)位支(zhi)撑点(dian)(dian)定(ding)位夹持(chi)(chi)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)。例如,在(zai)汽车发动机(ji)(ji)(ji)加工柔性自动线物流输送中,桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)会根据缸体(ti)、缸盖、曲轴等工件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)外形(xing)特点(dian)(dian),选取不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位和(he)夹持(chi)(chi)方式。柔性机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)上采用(yong)气缸和(he)电机(ji)(ji)(ji)进(jin)行(xing)定(ding)位和(he)夹持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)切(qie)换驱动,一套机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)可(ke)完成不同(tong)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)搬运(yun)工作。夹持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)可(ke)根据产品(pin)质量和(he)外形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)采用(yong)系列化设计(ji),机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)上的(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)安(an)装(zhuang)方式相同(tong),针对(dui)不同(tong)系列的(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)(jian),只需切(qie)换相应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)即可(ke),满足快速切(qie)换的(de)(de)(de)需要。这样,当加工不同(tong)品(pin)种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)(jian),只须变换夹持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)就可(ke)实现,提高了桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)柔性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械手输送(song)装(zhuang)置的发(fa)展及现状

自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经(jing)历了刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)和(he)(he)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代。就目前(qian)而(er)(er)(er)言, 在(zai)国内(nei)二(er)者均有之。刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)分(fen)为(wei)棘(ji)轮棘(ji)爪、摆(bai)杆、抬起步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形(xing)式(shi)。随(sui)(sui)着(zhe)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由其(qi)组成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代组合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),它(ta)以(yi)适应小(xiao)批量(liang)多品(pin)种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优(you)点,得到市场(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke),并(bing)(bing)称(cheng)其(qi)为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种以(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),就其(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)或(huo)(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)带依(yi)然为(wei)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)又有了飞(fei)跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)形(xing)式(shi)以(yi)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou))并(bing)(bing)存(cun),或(huo)(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)全部由桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)组成(cheng)(cheng),这(zhei)是(shi)(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),即主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心配以(yi)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song),又称(cheng)之为(wei)敏(min)(min)捷柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)敏(min)(min)捷制造(zao)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)组成(cheng)(cheng)部分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)采用(yong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)可(ke)根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)随(sui)(sui)意改变(bian),自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)位置(zhi)不再象刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)那样,按(an)照输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)或(huo)(huo)步(bu)距(ju)倍(bei)数(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进行严(yan)格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)速度也(ye)可(ke)根据生(sheng)产节(jie)拍及输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离而(er)(er)(er)改变(bian)。而(er)(er)(er)真正体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)一面是(shi)(shi),当被(bei)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产品(pin)改变(bian)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)部分(fen)不会不适应而(er)(er)(er)全部更(geng)换,只要(yao)改变(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)程序和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)局(ju)部结构(gou)即可(ke)。采用(yong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)更(geng)先进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一面是(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)整(zheng)(zheng)体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)(hua)、智能化(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调统(tong)一。因(yin)此,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)才在(zai)当今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上越(yue)来越(yue)多地被(bei)采用(yong),使整(zheng)(zheng)个生(sheng)产过程通过信息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)进行控(kong)(kong)(kong)制。在(zai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)和(he)(he)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)过程中(zhong),所(suo)需各种信息(xi)收集、处理(li)、反馈,并(bing)(bing)通过电子(zi)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)(huo)其(qi)他控(kong)(kong)(kong)制装(zhuang)置(zhi)(液压、气压装(zhuang)置(zhi)等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)(huo)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行分(fen)级控(kong)(kong)(kong)制。信息(xi)流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)分(fen)为(wei)由中(zhong)央管理(li)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)(kong)(kong)制计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元(yuan)控(kong)(kong)(kong)制计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)及信息(xi)传送(song)(song)网(wang)络组成(cheng)(cheng)。目前(qian),汽(qi)车(che)制造(zao)业中(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖及曲(qu)轴等大(da)批量(liang)关(guan)键(jian)零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)都采用(yong)了桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(见(jian)图3)。

2. 国内外的差距

当(dang)下,我国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan)很快,技(ji)术水平有(you)了(le)很大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高(gao),与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)变得越来越小,甚(shen)至有(you)些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)相(xiang)比已经没有(you)什么差距(ju)。特别是国(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)重(zhong)大(da)(da)科技(ji)专项的(de)(de)(de)开展(zhan),为(wei)我国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床上档次(ci)上水平提(ti)高(gao)了(le)加(jia)(jia)(jia)速度(du),成绩显而(er)(er)易(yi)见。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床这几年发(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)特别快,但(dan)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术水平和(he)(he)档次(ci),较(jiao)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)还很明显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)较(jiao)为(wei)普(pu)遍,而(er)(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)却为(wei)数不多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)庞大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽车(che)生(sheng)产(chan)市场所采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)(da)多从(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口。如无锡柴(chai)油发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)(gang)体(ti)缸(gang)(gang)盖柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)由(you)(you)德国(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公(gong)司总(zong)承包(bao),由(you)(you)BZ800加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清(qing)洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧(ning)紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试(shi)漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)(zai)线(xian)(xian)(xian)检(jian)具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成。输送(song)采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)输送(song)。仅以汽车(che)制造业而(er)(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈(qu)指可数。大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床集(ji)团和(he)(he)沈阳(yang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床集(ji)团等(deng)生(sheng)产(chan)出了(le)该方面的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),并(bing)在(zai)(zai)生(sheng)产(chan)实际中得到(dao)了(le)应用(yong)。图4是大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床集(ji)团生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)(gang)体(ti)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)两(liang)种缸(gang)(gang)体(ti),分别为(wei)四缸(gang)(gang)和(he)(he)六(liu)缸(gang)(gang),其输送(song)采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)两(liang)端为(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形式。桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)两(liang)个,一个上料,一个下料。它的(de)(de)(de)成功,标志着(zhe)我国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由(you)(you)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)际水准迈(mai)进。

上(shang)述提及的(de)(de)只(zhi)是数量上(shang)的(de)(de)比较,其实真(zhen)正的(de)(de)原因还是国(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)技术水平与国(guo)外有着一定的(de)(de)差(cha)距。柔性加(jia)工(gong)自动线采用(yong)的(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou),也(ye)是从国(guo)外进口的(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)。那时,国(guo)内还没有专门生产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)厂(chang)家(jia)。如今(jin),国(guo)内巨一等(deng)一些(xie)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)生产(chan)厂(chang)家(jia)的(de)(de)涌出,为国(guo)产(chan)柔性加(jia)工(gong)自动线带来了(le)希望,进而(er)缩小了(le)与国(guo)外在生产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)方面的(de)(de)差(cha)距,国(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)在柔性加(jia)工(gong)自动线的(de)(de)应用(yong)也(ye)越来越多,从而(er)打(da)破国(guo)产(chan)市场被(bei)外国(guo)人的(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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