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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:edaboard.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用卧式加工中心吗?——加工工件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心类型(xing)的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)定需要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对(dui)象、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和设(she)备价(jia)格等因素(su),根(gen)据所选(xuan)(xuan)零(ling)件(jian)族 (组)进行。如果您的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)具有以(yi)下特征,则应选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心:加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)以(yi)上的(de)零(ling)件(jian)或加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在(zai)四周呈径向辐(fu)射状排列(lie)的(de)孔系、面(mian),如箱体类、壳体类零(ling)件(jian)等,应选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心;被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)位置精度要(yao)(yao)求较高(gao),宜选(xuan)(xuan)用高(gao)精密卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心;零(ling)件(jian)在(zai)一次装夹中(zhong)需要(yao)(yao)完(wan)成多面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi),可选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)立卧(wo)复合式(shi)五面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心。当然,上述各点也不是(shi)绝对(dui)的(de),一方面(mian)是(shi)由于(yu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心正朝着复合化方向发展,另一方面(mian)选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时(shi)要(yao)(yao)综合考(kao)虑(lv)生产效率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)(yao)求和设(she)备资金等因素(su),要(yao)(yao)以(yi)性(xing)价(jia)比来衡量选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)方案的(de)合理性(xing)。

建议(yi):采购用(yong)(yong)户需要(yao)根据加工(gong)(gong)对(dui)象、加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺、加工(gong)(gong)范围(wei)等(deng)特征来确定是(shi)否使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)以及(ji)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)什(shen)么(me)样的卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工(gong)作台尺寸

这是卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)主参数,主要(yao)取(qu)决于典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)(jian)的(de)外(wai)廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)、装(zhuang)夹方(fang)式等(deng)。应选择比典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)(jian)外(wai)廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)稍大一些的(de)工(gong)作(zuo)台,以便留出安装(zhuang)夹具所需的(de)空(kong)间(jian),保(bao)证零(ling)件(jian)(jian)在其上面能(neng)够顺利装(zhuang)夹,此外(wai)还应考虑(lv)工(gong)作(zuo)台的(de)承载(zai)能(neng)力、T形槽数量和尺(chi)寸(cun)等(deng),小(xiao)尺(chi)寸(cun)的(de)比较通用,比如站(zhan)内的(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)。

建议(yi):目(mu)前市(shi)场上的卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)工(gong)作台(tai)尺寸多为1000以下的,能(neng)够满足(zu)大多数(shu)用户(hu)的需求(qiu)。

(2)坐标轴行(xing)程

最基(ji)(ji)本(ben)的(de)(de)坐(zuo)标轴(zhou)是(shi)X、Y、Z三轴(zhou),其行程(cheng)和(he)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台尺寸有相应(ying)的(de)(de)比例(li)关系(xi),工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台面的(de)(de)大小基(ji)(ji)本(ben)上(shang)确定(ding)了(le)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)空间(jian)的(de)(de)大小。如个别零件的(de)(de)尺寸大于(yu)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)行程(cheng)时,则必(bi)须要求零件的(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)区域处于(yu)机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)行程(cheng)范围(wei)之内,此(ci)外还要考虑零件是(shi)否与机(ji)床(chuang)交换刀具的(de)(de)空间(jian)干涉、与机(ji)床(chuang)防(fang)护罩(zhao)等(deng)附件发生干涉等(deng)系(xi)列问题(ti)。而对(dui)需要多(duo)轴(zhou)联(lian)动加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin) (如增加(jia)回转(zhuan)坐(zuo)标A、B、C或附加(jia)坐(zuo)标U、V、W),如四轴(zhou)、五轴(zhou)联(lian)动卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin),这(zhei)就需要特殊订货,同时必(bi)须对(dui)相应(ying)配套的(de)(de)编程(cheng)软件、测(ce)量手段以及机(ji)床(chuang)价(jia)格等(deng)有全(quan)面的(de)(de)考虑和(he)安排。

建(jian)议:采购用户需(xu)要(yao)根据加工工件规格选择不(bu)同坐标轴行程的卧式加工中心,多轴联(lian)动需(xu)要(yao)特殊定制。

(3)主轴电动机功(gong)率与转矩

它反映了卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)切削效率(lv),也从一个侧面反映了卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)切削刚性和机(ji)床整体刚度(du)。主轴电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)功(gong)率(lv)在同(tong)类规格的(de)卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心(xin)上(shang)可(ke)(ke)以有各(ge)种不同(tong)的(de)配置,同(tong)类规格的(de)主轴转速不同(tong)的(de)卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心(xin),主轴电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)功(gong)率(lv)可(ke)(ke)以相(xiang)差很大。

建议:采购用户应(ying)根(gen)据(ju)自身典型零件毛坯余量(liang)大小、切(qie)削(xue)能力 (单位时间金(jin)属切(qie)削(xue)量(liang))、要求达到的加工精度、实(shi)际能配置的刀具等因素(su)综合选择。

(4)主轴转速与(yu)进(jin)给速度

需要(yao)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)切削或超(chao)低(di)速(su)(su)(su)切削时,应关(guan)注主轴(zhou)的转速(su)(su)(su)范围。特别是高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)切削时,既要(yao)有高(gao)的主轴(zhou)转速(su)(su)(su),同(tong)时也要(yao)具备与(yu)主轴(zhou)转速(su)(su)(su)相匹(pi)配(pei)的进给速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)。目前卧式加工中心高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)化趋势(shi)发展很快(kuai),主轴(zhou)从每(mei)分钟几(ji)千转到几(ji)万转,直线坐标(biao)快(kuai)速(su)(su)(su)移动(dong)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)从10—20/min上(shang)升(sheng)到80m/min以上(shang),当然其功能部(bu)件如电(dian)(dian)主轴(zhou)、直线电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机、直线滚(gun)动(dong)导轨、主轴(zhou)轴(zhou)承等及相配(pei)套的光栅尺(chi)、刀具等附件价格也都相应上(shang)升(sheng),甚(shen)至很昂贵。

建议(yi):采购用户必须根(gen)据自身的技术能力(li)和配(pei)套能力(li)合(he)(he)理(li)作出卧式加工中心的合(he)(he)理(li)选型。

(5)刀库容量(liang)

可以(yi)(yi)根据被加(jia)工零件(jian)(jian)的(de)工艺分析结(jie)果来确定所(suo)需数(shu)量,通常(chang)以(yi)(yi)典型零件(jian)(jian)在一(yi)次(ci)装夹中(zhong)所(suo)需刀(dao)具数(shu)量来确定刀(dao)库的(de)容(rong)量,卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)工中(zhong)心以(yi)(yi)选用(yong)40把刀(dao)左(zuo)右的(de)刀(dao)库为宜。同时要关注(zhu)最(zui)大(da)(da)刀(dao)具直(zhi)径与长度以(yi)(yi)及(ji)最(zui)大(da)(da)刀(dao)具重量等。用(yong)于FMC或FMS的(de)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)工中(zhong)心,应选择大(da)(da)容(rong)量刀(dao)库,甚至配(pei)置可交(jiao)换刀(dao)库。

建议:普通卧式(shi)加(jia)工中心选择(ze)40把刀(dao)左右的刀(dao)库即够用,用于FMC或FMS的卧式(shi)加(jia)工中心应(ying)选择(ze)大(da)容量刀(dao)库。

3我需要选(xuan)用什么精(jing)度(du)的卧式加工(gong)中心?——精(jing)度(du)的选(xuan)定

加工(gong)中心的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)等(deng)级(ji)主(zhu)要根据(ju)典(dian)型(xing)(xing)零件(jian)关键部(bu)位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)来确(que)定(ding)。其(qi)精(jing)度(du)(du)主(zhu)要包括定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)、重复定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)和铣(xian)圆精(jing)度(du)(du),特别是重复定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du),它反映(ying)了坐标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)轴的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)稳定(ding)性,是衡量该轴是否稳定(ding)可靠工(gong)作的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)基本指标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)。特别值(zhi)得(de)注意的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是,选型(xing)(xing)订货(huo)时必须(xu)全(quan)面(mian)分(fen)析,不(bu)(bu)能简单地看产品样本所列的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)数值(zhi),因为标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)(bu)同、规(gui)定(ding)数值(zhi)不(bu)(bu)同、检(jian)测方法不(bu)(bu)同,数值(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)含义就不(bu)(bu)同。刊物、样本、合格(ge)证(zheng)所列出的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)单位(wei)(wei)长(zhang)度(du)(du)上(shang)允(yun)许(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)正负(fu)值(zhi)(一(yi)般为正负(fu)0.05)常常是不(bu)(bu)明(ming)确(que)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),订货(huo)时要特别注意,一(yi)定(ding)要弄(nong)清是IOS(国(guo)际(ji)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)化组织标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德(de)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美国(guo)机床(chuang)制造商协会(hui)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))还是NAS(美国(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中国(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))等(deng),进而分(fen)析各种不(bu)(bu)同标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)所规(gui)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)检(jian)测计算方法和检(jian)测环境条件(jian),才不(bu)(bu)会(hui)产生(sheng)误解(jie)。

铣(xian)圆精度(du)(du)是(shi)综合评价(jia)卧式(shi)加工中心(xin)有关数控轴的伺服跟随运动特性和数控系统(tong)插补功能(neng)的主要指标之一。不论典型零件是(shi)否有此(ci)需要,为了将来可能(neng)的需要及更(geng)好地控制精度(du)(du),必须重视这一指标。

要特别(bie)注(zhu)意区别(bie)加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)(du)与机(ji)床精(jing)度(du)(du)两(liang)个不同的概念。将生产厂家样本(ben)上或(huo)产品合格证上的位置精(jing)度(du)(du)当作卧式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心的加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)(du)是(shi)(shi)错误的。样本(ben)或(huo)合格证上标明(ming)的位置精(jing)度(du)(du)是(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心本(ben)身的精(jing)度(du)(du),而加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)(du)是(shi)(shi)包括卧式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心本(ben)身所允(yun)许误差(cha)在内的整(zheng)个工艺系(xi)统各种因素(su)所产生的误差(cha)总和。整(zheng)个工艺系(xi)统误差(cha)产生的原因是(shi)(shi)很复杂的,很难用线性关(guan)系(xi)定量表达。选型(xing)时(shi),可参(can)考(kao)工序能力系(xi)数Cp的评定方法(fa)来作为机(ji)床加(jia)(jia)工精(jing)度(du)(du)的选型(xing)依(yi)据(ju)。一(yi)般而言,Cp应大于1.33。

站内(nei)高精密(mi)的几款(kuan)卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式(shi)(shi)卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中心性(xing)能(neng)都不错。

建议:采(cai)购用户在挑选不同精度(du)的卧式(shi)加工中心时,需(xu)要考虑:不同标(biao)准对应的单位长(zhang)度(du)含义;重视铣圆精度(du)指(zhi)标(biao);区别加工精度(du)和(he)机床精度(du)。

4我(wo)应该选择哪(na)种数控系(xi)统?——数控系(xi)统的(de)选定

数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)分(fen)为(wei)基本功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)与选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),可以从操作方(fang)式(shi)(shi)、用(yong)(yong)户功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)、控(kong)制方(fang)式(shi)(shi)、驱动(dong)形式(shi)(shi)、反(fan)馈(kui)形式(shi)(shi)、接口形式(shi)(shi)、检测与测量、报警与提示、故障诊(zhen)断等方(fang)面(mian)(mian)综合(he)衡(heng)量。基本功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)是(shi)必须提供的,而只有当用(yong)(yong)户选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)了选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)后,厂家才会另(ling)行提供并另(ling)行加(jia)(jia)(jia)价,且(qie)定(ding)(ding)(ding)价一般较(jiao)高。总体而言,数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)一定(ding)(ding)(ding)要根据加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的性能(neng)(neng)需要来(lai)(lai)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze),订购时既要把需要的功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)订全,不能(neng)(neng)遗漏,同时避免使用(yong)(yong)率不高而造成浪费(fei),还(hai)需注意各功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)之间(jian)的关联性。另(ling)一方(fang)面(mian)(mian),在可供选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)的数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),如SIEMENS系(xi)统(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)统(tong)(tong)、国产(chan)华中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)等,性能(neng)(neng)高低差别很大,价格(ge)亦相差很大,进口系(xi)统(tong)(tong)或国产(chan)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)亦决定(ding)(ding)(ding)其价格(ge)的高低。总体上来(lai)(lai)看,法兰克系(xi)统(tong)(tong)性价比(bi)比(bi)较(jiao)高,国内卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)使用(yong)(yong)比(bi)例比(bi)较(jiao)高。站内卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)使用(yong)(yong)法兰克数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的也比(bi)较(jiao)多,比(bi)如MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是(shi)比(bi)较(jiao)好的选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)。多台卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)型时,应尽可能(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)同一厂家的数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong),这样(yang)操作、编程(cheng)、维修都比(bi)较(jiao)方(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)(wo)需要(yao)选择几台卧式(shi)加工中心能达到(dao)的我(wo)(wo)的产(chan)量要(yao)求(qiu)?——生产(chan)能力的估算

选型时(shi),必(bi)须要(yao)考(kao)虑卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心能(neng)达(da)(da)到(dao)(dao)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)能(neng)力(li),即要(yao)求选定的(de)卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心在(zai)一(yi)年之内能(neng)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种(zhong)典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)、加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)多少数(shu)量(liang)的(de)零(ling)件(jian)。要(yao)得到(dao)(dao)这些数(shu)据必(bi)须对(dui)每(mei)一(yi)种(zhong)确定的(de)典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)进行加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和(he)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)节拍的(de)估(gu)算(suan)。一(yi)般(ban)步骤为:首先,根据已选定的(de)典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)进行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析,初步确定一(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线(xian),在(zai)这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线(xian)中(zhong)(zhong)选出(chu)准备在(zai)卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心上加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu);第(di)二,根据现用的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参(can)数(shu),估(gu)算(suan)出(chu)每(mei)道在(zai)卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心上加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)单个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时(shi)间(jian);第(di)三,由每(mei)个(ge)单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时(shi)间(jian)计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)选定零(ling)件(jian)在(zai)卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心上加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)总时(shi)间(jian),进而(er)计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)年产(chan)(chan)量(liang)即生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)能(neng)力(li)。如果(guo)(guo)估(gu)算(suan)结果(guo)(guo)达(da)(da)不(bu)到(dao)(dao)目标值,但相差不(bu)大(da),则可以通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参(can)数(shu)的(de)方(fang)法加以调整;如果(guo)(guo)相差很(hen)大(da),则应考(kao)虑增加卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心台数(shu)的(de)配置。

建议:采购用户需要根据工件加(jia)工工时(shi)和生产节拍的估算,决(jue)定(ding)卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心配(pei)备台(tai)数。

6卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心有好(hao)多选(xuan)配(pei)(pei)的附件(jian)我应该如何选(xuan)配(pei)(pei)?——其他功能(neng)部件(jian)及附件(jian)的选(xuan)定

(1)坐标轴(zhou)数和(he)联动(dong)轴(zhou)数

坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数和联动轴(zhou)数均应(ying)满(man)足典型零件加(jia)工(gong)(gong)要(yao)求。一般情况下(xia),同厂家、同规格、同等精度的卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心,增(zeng)加(jia)一个标(biao)(biao)准坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou),价格约增(zeng)加(jia)30%—50%。尽管(guan)增(zeng)加(jia)坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数可以强化加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的功能,是(shi)机床上(shang)档次的标(biao)(biao)志(zhi)之一,但最终(zhong)还是(shi)要(yao)在工(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)求和资金(jin)条件下(xia)平衡决定。

(2)工作台

卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心可配(pei)置用(yong)于分度(du)的(de)回转工(gong)作(zuo)台和(he)数(shu)控(kong)回转工(gong)作(zuo)台,后者能够实(shi)现任意(yi)分度(du),作(zuo)为B轴与其他轴联动(dong)控(kong)制。回转工(gong)作(zuo)台配(pei)置与否以(yi)及如何(he)配(pei)置必(bi)须以(yi)实(shi)际需要来(lai)确定,以(yi)经济、实(shi)用(yong)为目的(de)。

(3)自动换刀装置(zhi) (ATC)

ATC的(de)选择主要(yao)考虑换(huan)刀时间与(yu)(yu)可(ke)靠性(xing)。过分强调换(huan)刀时间会使加工中心(xin)的(de)价格大幅(fu)度提(ti)高并使故(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)率上升。据统(tong)计,加工中心(xin)的(de)故(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)中约有(you)50%与(yu)(yu)ATC有(you)关(guan),因此,在满足使用(yong)要(yao)求的(de)前(qian)提(ti)下(xia),尽量选用(yong)可(ke)靠性(xing)高的(de)ATC,以降低故(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)率和整机成本

(4)必要的附件、配(pei)套件

选型时(shi),还应注(zhu)意选用(yong)一(yi)些(xie)配套件及附(fu)(fu)件,尽量(liang)避免因缺少一(yi)个几万元(yuan)就能购(gou)买的(de)附(fu)(fu)件而影响(xiang)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)正(zheng)常运行。慎重(zhong)选择(ze)刀(dao)柄和(he)刀(dao)具也是保证卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心正(zheng)常运行的(de)关键,最佳的(de)选择(ze)办法应是根据典型零件所需(xu)的(de)品种和(he)数量(liang)来(lai)确定,并在使(shi)用(yong)中(zhong)陆续添置。在卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)构成中(zhong),排屑装置、防护(hu)装置和(he)对(dui)刀(dao)装置 (如刀(dao)具预调(diao)仪)等均是必需(xu)的(de),对(dui)一(yi)些(xie)尽管不是必需(xu)的(de)配套件,但如果价格不高,对(dui)使(shi)用(yong)带(dai)来(lai)很多方便,也应尽量(liang)选用(yong),如附(fu)(fu)件铣头(tou)、储刀(dao)料架、运刀(dao)具车、装卸器等。

建议:配件越高,能实(shi)现的功能越多,但价格(ge)也越贵,采(cai)购用户(hu)需要根据加工需求(qiu)酌情选配。

7卧(wo)式加工中心选(xuan)型(xing)时(shi)还有什么其他需要注意的(de)?——需要注意的(de)一些问题

(1)结构设计

加(jia)工(gong)中心对其床身、立柱、工(gong)作台、主轴以(yi)及刀库等功能部件的(de)结构(gou)设计有着(zhe)很高(gao)的(de)要求(qiu),以(yi)达到其高(gao)强(qiang)度、高(gao)刚度、高(gao)抗(kang)振性和稳定(ding)性的(de)目的(de)。选型时,应特(te)别注意把其结构(gou)作为一项重要的(de)具体内容来进行(xing)要求(qiu)与考虑。

(2)功能与加工的(de)适(shi)应性

虽(sui)然加(jia)工(gong)中心可以进行钻、扩、铣(xian)、镗(tang)、铰、攻螺纹乃(nai)至车削 (如车铣(xian)复(fu)合加(jia)工(gong)中心)等(deng)多种(zhong)加(jia)工(gong),但是在具体选择时(shi),还应根据具体需要(yao)(yao)来考(kao)虑机床的功能与加(jia)工(gong)是否相适应等(deng)问题(ti)。要(yao)(yao)注(zhu)意以下几点:

A、复杂曲线加(jia)工时(shi),要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)CNC是(shi)否有所(suo)需要(yao)的曲线插补功(gong)能,或选择(ze)(ze)什么方式逼近加(jia)工曲线并(bing)保证所(suo)要(yao)求的表面(mian)粗糙度。三维加(jia)工时(shi),要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)选择(ze)(ze)适合(he)的刀具结构,还要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)程序(xu)编(bian)制能力(li),如有必要(yao)则必须配备(bei)自动编(bian)程装置(zhi)(zhi)或后置(zhi)(zhi)处理编(bian)程装置(zhi)(zhi)。

B、需要进(jin)行(xing)螺纹(wen)切削(xue) (非攻螺纹(wen)方(fang)式)时(shi),不仅要看是(shi)(shi)否有螺纹(wen)切削(xue)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)、螺旋线插(cha)补功(gong)能(neng)(neng)和(he)主轴转动与进(jin)给同(tong)步功(gong)能(neng)(neng),还(hai)要考虑机床是(shi)(shi)否有径向进(jin)给装置(zhi)、是(shi)(shi)否有主轴在(zai)(zai)旋转方(fang)向上任意角度(du)位置(zhi)准确定位功(gong)能(neng)(neng)。否则(ze),仅在(zai)(zai)数控系(xi)统中用(yong)了螺纹(wen)切削(xue)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)仍然(ran)无法进(jin)行(xing)螺纹(wen)切削(xue)C、采用(yong)金刚(gang)铰、浮动镗(tang)和(he)挤压加工等特种(zhong)加工时(shi),既要考虑适(shi)宜的自动换刀的条件(jian)(jian),又要考虑选择合适(shi)的刀具结(jie)构和(he)切削(xue)用(yong)量,应尽(jin)可能(neng)(neng)在(zai)(zai)购(gou)买(mai)主机时(shi)一(yi)并(bing)购(gou)置(zhi)部分易损部件(jian)(jian)及其他(ta)附件(jian)(jian)等。

D、如果有(you)应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的规划,或要进行(xing)网络制(zhi)造,则要注意(yi)通信功(gong)能,应选择具有(you)RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络通信、CAN总线等接口的系(xi)统(tong)。

(3)运转的(de)可(ke)靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用户在选(xuan)型(xing)时(shi),需(xu)要对卧式加工中心整体的结构设计(ji)、可靠性以及(ji)价加工适应(ying)性有(you)客观的认识。


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